THE ‘CONFERENCE ON CYPRUS’ IN SWITZERLAND ON 28 JUNE 2017: A CALL FOR A NEW STRATEGY IN SUPPORT OF THE REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS AND IN DEFENCE OF DEMOCRACY
Mr Antonio Guterres, Secretary-General of the United Nations
Mr Jean-Claude Juncker, President of the European Commission
Mr Nicos Anastasiades, President of the Republic of Cyprus
Mr Nikos Kotzias, Foreign Minister of the Republic of Greece
Mr Rex W. Tillerson, Secretary of State of the United States of America
Mr Boris Johnson MP, Foreign & Commonwealth Secretary of the United Kingdom
Mr Jean-Yves Le Drian, Minister for Europe & Foreign Affairs of France
Mr Wang Yi, Foreign Minister of the People’s Republic of China
Mr Sergey Lavrov, Foreign Minister of the Russian Federation
Member States of United Nations
Member States of the EU not mentioned above
Members of the European Parliament
With a ‘Conference on Cyprus’ scheduled to be held behind closed doors in Switzerland on 28 June 2017, the Republic of Cyprus and its fellow EU Member States are in mortal danger.
The reasons flow from a catastrophic collective capitulation to the fundamental pro-segregation demands of Turkey, as embodied in a related doctrine of division. This process began during the final phase of the British imperial era and upon the establishment of the Republic of Cyprus in 1960. It was then accentuated in the aftermath of the two Turkish invasions of the Republic of Cyprus in 1974.
The embrace of segregation was initially inspired by the UK. However, in an effort to appease Turkey and in response to Cold War considerations no longer applicable today, successive US administrations, the UN and some European governments bowed to Turkish governmental demands. In response to external diplomatic pressure, the governments of Greece and of the Republic of Cyprus likewise caved in. As a result, these actors shaped their policies in the absence of any fair and formal consultation exercise involving the people who ought to have mattered the most – the citizens of the Republic of Cyprus.
Since at least 1964, a full decade before the two Turkish invasions of 1974, successive Turkish governments have pursued an updated neo-imperial strategy originally formulated in 1956. This has effectively rested on five main doctrinal propositions at odds with the rule of law and democratic values as reflected in landmark legal instruments such as the US Civil Rights Act of 1964.
(1) The Island of Cyprus is ‘an extension’ of Turkey otherwise known as ‘motherland Turkey’.
(2) The principles of integration, majoritarian democracy and unitary self-determination must be undermined.
(3) Via ‘bi-communalism’, the citizens of the same sovereign state must be divided into two separate ethno-religious ‘communities’ owing their origins to the Ottoman and British imperial division of Cypriots into ‘Moslems’ and ‘non-Moslems’.
(4) Via ‘bi-zonality’, the territory of the Island of Cyprus must be carved up into four portions consisting of two ‘British Sovereign Base Areas’, plus two segregated ethno-religious ‘zones’ to be governed respectively by a proposed new ‘Greek Cypriot constituent state’ and a proposed new ‘Turkish Cypriot constituent state’.
(5) ‘Bi-communal’ division and ‘bi-zonal’ segregation must be supplemented by a perverse form of ‘federation’ designed to regularize irregularities, to facilitate demographic engineering and to perpetuate various treaties granting extraordinary rights to Turkey.
History confirms that Turkey is an aggressor. Indeed, Turkey has launched three invasions of the Island of Cyprus: on 27 June 1570, a move resulting in conquest and colonisation; on 20 July 1974, purportedly in response to a coup in Nicosia engineered by a junta in Athens; and on 14 August 1974, three weeks after the downfall of both the junta in Athens and its short-lived puppet regime in Nicosia.
In 1974, Turkey prepared the ground for what it wanted to create: a segregationist ‘bi-communal, bi-zonal federation’. Turkey did so by committing multiple violations of human rights and by perpetrating what appear to be grave crimes. One result was the Turkish occupation and ethno-religious cleansing of 36 per cent of the territory and 57 per cent of the coastline of the Republic of Cyprus. Other effects included the post-1974 de facto colonisation of the Turkish-occupied area with citizens of Turkey and, in 1983, a legally invalid unilateral ‘declaration of independence’.
Since 1974, more than 180,000 citizens of the Republic of Cyprus have been denied the fundamental right to return to their homes from which they were forcibly transferred contrary to international humanitarian law. Adding insult to injury, all post-1974 diplomatic talks have tended to focus on appeasing Turkey, legalising the illegal effects of its invasions and precluding the application of international criminal justice.
Alas, the post-1974 appeasement of Turkey has backfired. Instead of producing ‘peace’, appeasement has propelled Turkey into a menace which endangers the EU. Instead of stimulating democracy in Turkey, appeasement has helped to turn Turkey into a tyranny. Instead of fostering inclusive values, appeasement has conveyed a semblance of credibility to the segregation inherent in ‘bi-communalism’ and ‘bi-zonality’.
If ‘bi-communalism’ and ‘bi-zonality’ are entrenched under any ‘settlement’, this will reward aggression and may even create a dangerous precedent within the EU and the wider democratic world of which the US forms part. Such a precedent may then be exploited by President Erdogan and by other enemies of democracy; they have already started to interfere or sow the seeds of division in various parts of the EU, such as Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands and, ironically, the UK.
In view of the above:
We call for new strategy in support of the Republic of Cyprus, in defense of democratic values, in the interests of the democratic world and in line with the post-1945 international legal order.
We call for the Republic of Cyprus to be saved from the ordeal of being transformed into a segregated ‘bi-communal, bi-zonal federation’ in line with the post-1964 strategy of Turkey.
We call for a new democratic constitutional philosophy under which every citizen of the Republic of Cyprus, irrespective of ethnicity or religion, is protected by the rule of law, the principle of equality and the prohibition against direct or indirect discrimination.
We call for the rescission of the 1960 Treaties of Alliance and Guarantee, coupled with the removal of all Turkish forces and, subject to due process, the humane deportation of all colonists illegally present on the territory of the Republic of Cyprus.
We call for the 1960 Treaty of Establishment to be modernised in a manner which does not undermine the Republic of Cyprus and its security.
We call on Turkey, with whose citizens we have no quarrel, to turn its back on tyranny, to transform itself into a genuine democracy and to cease threatening the Republic of Cyprus and other Member States of the EU
We call on Turkey to become a State Party to the many legal instruments which it has hitherto shied away from, such as the Crime of Apartheid Convention of 1973, the UN Law of the Sea Convention of 1982 and the Rome Statute on the International Criminal Court of 1998.
We call on the UN to enforce international humanitarian law in the interests of criminal justice.
We call for the humane founding values of the EU to triumph over the doctrine of division that imbues the proposed ‘bi-communal, bi-zonal federation’.
We call for a transparent and procedurally fair programme of constitutional and legal renewal which transforms the Republic of Cyprus into a genuinely unitary, united, integrated and free democratic state. Only such a state can be a secure bulwark of the EU and of the democratic world in the Eastern Mediterranean, one of the most conflict-prone parts of the world.
(signatures entered after submission of the letter to the addressees are appended to the list in no alphabetical order)
1 . Akritas Alkiviades G. retired Professor University of Thessaly, Greece (1999-2016); former Professor at the University of Kansas, (1980-1999). USA
2. Ashiotis Petros, Chairman of Movement for the Advocacy of the Republic of Cyprus
3. Aroniadou-Anderjaska Vassiliki, Ph.D., Research Associate Professor of Neuroscience, Bethesda, MD, USA
4. Athanassiadou Aglaia, University of Patras Medical School, Professor Emeritus, Greece
5. Bacalis N, Researcher, National Hellenic Research Foundation, Greece
6. Baloglou George, formerly associate professor, SUNY, Oswego, USA
7. Balopoulos Victor , Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering Democritus University of Thrace, Kimmeria Campus, Xanthi, 67100, Greece
8. Barbas John, Ph.D. Professor of Chemistry Valdosta State University Valdosta, GA 31698, USA
9. Blytas George C., Ph.D. Physical Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Retired, USA
10. Bougas Ioannis Ph.D., Director of Statistical Consulting (Ret.), Bell Canada, Montreal, Canada
11. Bucher Matthias Ph.D., Associate Professor, Technical University of Crete, Chania, Greece
12. Constantinides Constantine N., Professor of Byzantine History, University of Ioannina, Greece.
13. Christodoulou Niki, PhD., Associate Professor of Curriculum and Instruction
DEPARTMENT OF ADVANCED STUDIES AND INNOVATION, COLLEGE OF EDUCATION Augusta University, USA
14. Dokos Socrates Ph.D., Associate Professor, Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, UNSW, Sydney NSW 2052, Australia
15. Daskalopoulou Stella S., MD, MSc, DIC, PhD Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, McGill University, USA
16. Stylianos Drakatos, PhD, PMP Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Florida International University, USA
17. Economides Spyros, Emeritus Professor, California State University, East Bay, USA
18. Euthymiou Pavlos N., Emeritus Professor of Forestry and Natural Environment, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
19. Evangeliou Christos C., Professor of Philosophy, Towson University Towson, MD 21252, USA
20. Faller James G, Ph.D., P.E., retired research engineer, federal service, USA
21. Fanoulla Argyrou, Researcher, Journalist, Author, London, United Kingdom
22. Gatzoulis Nina, Professor of Humanities, Classics and Italian, University of New Hampshire, USA
23. Gatzoulis Vassilios, President, Hellenic Society PAIDEIA of New Hampshire, Retired Electrical-Nuclear Engineer, US Defense Dept., Naval Submarine Div., USA
24. Gialtouridis Georgios, President, New England Risk Solutions LLC, Westwood, MA, USA
25. Halamandaris Pantelis, Professor Emeritus, Brandon University, Canada
26. Hoidas Spyros, Professor emeritus National and Kapodistrian University, Greece
27. Christos Iatrou Christos, Professor of Anesthesiology Democritus University of Thrace, Greece
28. Fytrolakis Nikolaos, Professor Emeritus, National Technical University of Athens, Greece
29. Hatzopoulos John N.MSCE, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, University of the Aegean, Greece Former professor Cal. State University Fresno, USA Pyrgoi Thermis, Mytilene, 81100, Greece
30. Ioannou Petros, Professor, Electrical Engineering Systems, University of Southern California, Director Center for Advanced Transportation Technologies, Associate Director for Research METRANS, Director of Financial Engineering Masters Program, Los Angeles, CA, USA
31. Kakouli-Duarte Thomais PhD. Director enviroCORE | Lecturer in Biosciences Department of Science and Health Institute of Technology, Carlo Kilkenny Road, Carlow Ireland
32. Karanikolas Paul, Professor University of Agriculture Athens, Greece
33. Katsarkas Athanasios, M.D., M.Sc., FRCS(C) Professor of Medicine McGill University Montreal, Quebec, Canada
34. Katsifis.Spiros P., Ph.D., FACFE Professor and Chair of Biology Graduate Studies. University of Bridgeport, Brisgeport CT 06604, USA
35. Katatanakis Emmanouil, Postgraduate student in Data Science and Engineering, Cyprus University of Technology, Republic of Cyprus
36. Katsifarakis Kostas, Professor, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
37. Kiritsis Theodoros Engineer of Polytechnic University of Athens, Greece
38. Kafatos Menas C. Professor, Fletcher Jones Endowed Professor of Computational Physics Chapman University Orange, CA USA
39. Kladi Marianthi, formerly assistant professor, Panteion University of Athens, Department of International and European Studies , Greece
40. Kodogianidis Nikolaos, Ph.D., PE Electrical Engineer Fred Wilson & Associates Jacksonville, FL., USA
41. Koukides Nikos, Agriculturist Athens, Greece
42. Koumakis Leonidas, Jurist, Author, Greece
43. Kouros Pavlos, Prof., Dept. of Computer Systems Engineering, Piraeus University of Applied Sciences, (AEI-TT), Athens, Greece
44. Kouroumalis Elias, Emeritus Professor of Gastroenterology, University of Crete Medical School, USA
45. Kouroumalis George Lawyer Athens, Greece
46. Kyriakides Klearchos A. PhD., Academic, United Kingdom & Republic of Cyprus
47. Kyriakou Georgios, Professor, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece
48. Kyriacou Andreas, PhD. DABR Medical Physicist Advanced Radiation Physics Inc. 21346 St. Andrews Blvd. # 125 Boca Raton, FL 33433, USA
49. Kousis Konstantinos, Reporter NY, USA
50. Lambrinos Panos, Rtd Professor, School of Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece.
51. Leventouri Theodora Phd., Professor of Physics Director, Medical Physics Program Director, Center for Biomedical and Materials Physics Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA
52. Liolios Asterios Rtd Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi, Greece
53. Lymberis Maria T., MD, Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, Geffen UCLA School of Medicine, USA
54. Lampropoulou Venetta Professor Emeritus, University of Patras , Greece
55. Manias Stefanos N., Ph.D., Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical, University of Athens , Greece
58. Melakopides Costas, Associate Professor(ret.), University of Cyprus, Republic of Cyprus
59. Markella Argretaki, Economist of Athens Economic University,Former Director of Corporate Division at the Regional Directorate of Attica – South Greece – Islands of Macedonia and Thrace Bank (Today PiraeusBank), Greece
60. Mermigas Lefteris Pathology Professor, SUNYAB, USA
61. Michopoulos Aristotle, Ph.D., Professor, Hellenic College Brookline, MA., USA
62. Miller Barbara, Joppa Town, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
63. Miller Stephen G., Professor Emeritus, University of California Berkeley, Director Emeritus, Nemea Excavations, former director American School of Classical Studies at Athens. Nemea, Greece
64. Moraitis Nicholas L., Ph.D., International Relations, Comparative Politics, U.S. Foreign Policy.,University of California, Berkeley, USA
65. Moschovakis A.K., M.D., Ph.D., Professor of Physiology, University of Crete, Greece
67. Negreponti-Delivanis Maria, former Rector and Professor, Macedonian University, Greece
68. Noutsis Konstantinos MD., past Manager of Dermatology Clinic Evangelismos Hospital Athens, Greece
69. Panos Niarchos (Ret.), Indiana University, USA
70. Okos Antony J., M.D., University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
71. Οrfanoudaki Ioanna Economist Athens Economic University Section of Management Studies Manager of the budget Dep. In the Division of Finance – Agricultural Bank of Greece, Greece
72. Pallas Dimitri S , MD, Greece
73. Panoskaltsis Vassilis, Professor, Demokritos University of Thrace, Greece.
74. Papadopoulos Nikolaos Th. MD. Ph.D., FEBO Professor Emeritus, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece.
75. Papadopoulos Kyriakos, Professor of Chemical Engineering, Tulane University, New Orleans, USA
76. Papagiannis Grigorios, Assoc. Prof. for Byzantine Philology, Demokritos University of Thrace, Greece
77. Papakostas Stephanos, MBA Ex professor of Business Administration, Southeastern College, Deree College, Athens, Greece
78. Papamarinopoulos Stavros P., Professor (Ret), University of Patras, Geophysics, Patra, Greece
79. Papathanassiou Maria K., Professor Emerita, Department of Mathematics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
80. Pantazopoulou S.J., Professor, York University, Ontario, Canada
81. Perperidis Panagiotis Mechanical Engineer of National Technical University of Athens, Greece
82. Patitsas Tom A., Professor Emeritus, Physics Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada
83. Georgios P. Pavlos, PhD in Physics and Philosophy Associate Professor
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Democritus University of Thrace Xanthi, Greece
84. Pelekanos Nikos Professor. University of Crete, Greece
85. Perdikatsis Vassilios, Emeritus Professor, University of Crete, Greece
86. Phufas Ellene S., Professor English/Humanities, SUNY ERIE, Buffalo, USA
87. Poularikas Alexander, Professor Emeritus , University of Alabama in Huntsville, USA
88. Rachiotis George, Assistant professor of Epidemiology and Occupational Hygiene, University of Thessaly, Greece
89. Rivas Alexandros, Professor DUTH THRAKI, Greece
90. Rigos Evangelos , Master Mariner, Pace University, BBA, New York, Greece
91. Righos George N, Order of AHEPA, Past District Governor, 5th District, Wilmington, Delaware, USA
92. Rhoda S. Rocha Retired Professor Baltimore County Community College
Baltimore, Maryland, USA
93. Rozos Demetrios Associate Professor, National University of Athens, Greece
94. Savaki Hellen, MD, Professor of Physiology, University of Crete, Greece
95. Shiakolas Panos S., Professor, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Director of MARS Lab, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, 76019, USA
96. Sideris Kosmas K., Associate Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece
97. Sigrimis Nick, PhDEE Professors Cornell University M.IEEE/CS,CSS,RAS/, IFAC, EurAgEng, ASAE CIGR<http://www.cigr.org/ > / IT section [VII], founder & honor-Chairman Geomations SA, AUA spinoff RTD & commercial SME, Founder and President http://www.aua.gr/ns, www.geomations.com, www.hortimed.org
98. Simeonides Simeonides Ioannis, Economist, Ph.D. in Economics/Marketing, Former Director of Public Sector Division In Agricultural Bank of Greece, former Professor in Dept of Management, Athens University of Applied Sciences, AEI/TEI, Greece
99. Sinis Martha, docent at the Walters Art Museum and member of the Committee for the creation of the Hellenic Heritage Museum and Archives of Maryland, Owings Mills, Maryland, USA
100. Sigrmis Nick, Professor Emeritus, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece
101. Spathopoulos Ing. Theodoros, Ph.D., Former Director, Engineering, Research & Development, Hellenic Aerospace Industry, Greece
102. Spyridakis Stylianos V., Professor of History, University of California-Davis, USA
103. Stamboliadis Elias, Professor, Technical University of Crete, Greece
104. Stylianoudi Maltsinioti Marianna Former secretary of Hellenic Shipyards CO, Brazil
105. Sygkliti-Henrietta Pelidou, MD, PhD, Ass Prof In Neurology University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece
106. Triantafillou Georgia, Ph.D., Professor of Mathematics, Temple University, 1805 N Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA